Principle of Operations

Solar Photovoltaic Modules convert sunlight directly into electricity. The solar photovoltaic modules consist of phtovoltic cells made of Silicon, a semiconductor material, encapsulated between a glass top and special bottom. The encapsulation is such that the cells are hermetically sealed to ensure complete environmental protection. The Solar Photovoltaic Module when exposed to the sunlight, generates DC power.

Principles of Solar Operation

Depending upon the quantum of power generation required, necessary number of Solar Photovoltaic Modules may have to be connected in suitable series/parallel combination. Such a combination of Solar Photovoltaic Modules is called array or panels.

The electricity generated by the solar photovoltaic array is used to charge a Battery Bank of adequate capacity so that electricity would be available for powering the load connected. Size of the battery bank is designed so as to provide power during non-sunshine periods.

How our System Works

Photovolatic Cells

Photovoltaic Cells: Converting Photons to Electrons

  • The solar cells that you see on calculators and satellites are also called photovoltaic (PV) cells, which as the name implies (photo meaning "light" and voltaic meaning "electricity"), convert sunlight directly into electricity.
  • A module is a group of cells connected electrically and packaged into a frame (more commonly known as a solar panel), which can then be grouped into larger solar arrays.
  • Photovoltaic cells are made of special materials called semiconductors such as silicon, which is currently used most commonly. Ba¬sically, when light strikes the cell, a certain portion of it is absorbed within the semiconductor material.
  • This means that the energy of the absorbed light is transferred to the semiconductor. The energy knocks electrons loose, allowing them to flow freely.
  • PV cells also all have one or more electric field that acts to force electrons freed by light absorption to flow in a certain direction.
  • This flow of electrons is a current, and by placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off for external use, say, to power a calculator.
  • This current, together with the cell's voltage (which is a result of its built-in electric field or fields), defines the power (or wattage) that the solar cell can produce.

How Silicon Makes a Solar Cell

Silicon has some special chemical properties, especially in its crystalline form. An atom of sili-con has 14 electrons, arranged in three different shells. The first two shells -- which hold two and eight electrons respectively -- are completely full. The outer shell, however, is only half full with just four electrons. A silicon atom will always look for ways to fill up its last shell, and to do this, it will share electrons with four nearby atoms. It's like each atom holds hands with its neighbors, except that in this case, each atom has four hands joined to four neighbors. That's what forms the crystalline structure, and that structure turns out to be important to this type of PV cell.

About Modules

A photovoltaic (PV) module is the basic element of each photovoltaic system. Light energy gets converted into electricity. It consists of many jointly connected solar cells (Poly / Multi or Mono Cells). Most commercial grid crystalline modules usually consist of 60 cells (225 Watts to 240 Watts) or of 72 cells (250 Watts to 280 Watts). Solar cells are connected and placed between a tedlar plate on the bottom and a tempered glass on the top. Placed between the solar cells and the glass there is a thin foil of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). Solar cells are interconnected with thin contacts on the upper side of the semiconductor material, which can be seen as a metal net on the solar cells. The net must be as thin as possible allowing a disturbance free incidence photon stream. Usually a module is framed with an alluminium frame, occasionally with a stainless steel or with a plastic frame. Over its estimated life of at least 25 years a photovoltaic module will produce much more electricity than used in it's production.

Solar Module Manufacturing Process

Module Manufacturing Process

Great Output Yields

Andromeda Solar modules generate maximum yields using low surface areas – even in diffused light. All Modules feature high efficiency rates with output tolerance fluctuation of ± 3%. We guarantee at least 80% of the stated minimum output power within the first 25 years of commissioning.

Durability & Availability

Andromeda Solar modules have a life span of over 25 years. Due to its extruded, anodized aluminum frame and the use of either 3.2 mm or 4 mm tempered safety glass with anti-reflective coating that offers a high level of safety even in extreme weather conditions.

Solar Lanterns and Specifications